Saturday, 26 January 2008

Possible Viral Diseases that Might Be Contracted in the Jungle (Part 1 Updated)

Cheng Hong: Mmic viral posting2

In the previous blog posting there are 5 viral diseases (part 1) that is listed, in this blog, we will focus on the more common viral disease that might be contracted in the Indonesia jungle. Mainly: Dengue, Rabies, Yellow Fever.


-Cause by:
--Dengue virus-Flavivirus family

--By the bite of the Ades aegypti mosquito
--Bites during the day
--Not transmitted from person to person
-Pathogenesis and symptoms:
--Dengue fever (breakbone fever): Sudden onset of fever, skin rash, muscular pain, recovers in about a week
--Dengue hemorrhagic fever: Acute onset, decrease in platelet count, causing hemorrhage under the skin and GI tract
--Dengue shock syndrome: Severe hypotension(low blood pressure), may cause shock, maybe fatal if not treated immediately

-Suitable precaution and treatment:
--Wear mosquito repellent on exposed skin area and wear long pants and long sleeve shirt when possible.
--Supplementation with intravenous fluids to prevent hypotension
--Platelet transfusion is needed in rare cases if the platelet level drops significantly (below 20,000)

2. Hantavirus Diseases

-Unlikely to happen as, Hantavirus is spread through rodent’s feces, saliva, urine, rodents are unlikely to be found in the jungle of Indonesia and ingesting its feces/urine is also quite unlikely
-But army men should note the hygiene when consuming food

3. Japanese Encephalitis(Winkipedia>Japanese Encephalitis)

-Culex tritaeniorhynchus it is more prevalent in the Northern Asia, parts of Africa thus unlikely to be found in the jungles of Indonesia.
-But army men should take precautions from getting mosquito bites

4. Rabies
-Cause by:
--Rabies virus( rhabdovirus: (-)ssRNA)- Lyssavirus family
--Bites from infected wild animals (bats, wild boar, monkeys etc)
--Virus present in the saliva

-Pathogenesis and symptoms:
--Infect human when saliva containing rabies virus from animal bite penetrates into skin
-- The virus enters the peripheral nervous system and travels along the nerves towards the central nervous system and reaches the brain to trigger the disease.
--Headache, fever, malaise, numbness on site of bite, hallucinations, spasms, death must occur if not treated immediately

-Suitable precautions and treatment:
--Vaccination(anti-rabies) available, post exposure treatment also available
--Avoid contact with wild animals, if bitten, clean wound and wash with disinfectant immediately
--Army men should not agitate wild animals to prevent them from biting

5. Yellow Fever
(Winkipedia>Yellow Fever)
-Cause by:
--Yellow fever virus (arbovirus: (+)ssRNA)- Flavivirus family
--Bite from infective Aedes aegypti mosquito
--Normally bite during the day
-- Aedes aegypti mosquito is also prevalent in Southeast Asia thus Yellow Fever might be contracted in the jungles of Indonesia
-Pathogenesis and symptoms:
-- After the bite, the viral particles is deposited through the skin in infected arthropod saliva
--The virus replicates locally, then transported to the rest of the body via the lymphatic system, then to other parts of the body
--Acute onset, fever, muscular pain, headache, chills, nausea, vomiting, bradycardia
--May proceed to development of jaundice, abdominal pain, haemorrhage (50% of which will die)

-Suitable precaution:
--Vaccination available
--Wear mosquito repellent on exposed skin area and wear long pants and long sleeve shirt when possible.
--For serious cases: Fluid replacement, fighting hypotension and transfusion of blood derivates

(top to bottom): Dengue virus, Rabies virus, Yellow fever virus, Ades mosquito

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